Do Hot Tubs Lower Sperm Count?

Man soaking in hot tub, lying back with eyes closed.

Hot tubs are a popular way to relax and unwind after a long day, providing numerous health benefits such as stress relief, muscle relaxation, and improved circulation. However, there are also potential health risks associated with the prolonged use of hot tubs, including the potential to lower sperm count.

Continue reading to learn about the research surrounding this topic and discuss the connection between hot tub use and sperm count.

Does Using a Hot Tub Cause a Decrease in Sperm Count?

Simply put, if your testicles are exposed to heat from any source, it can lead to a decrease in sperm production. This includes soaking in a hot tub or jacuzzi, using a sauna, taking a hot bath, wearing tight underwear, or even having a fever from an illness or infection.

The result of this decrease in sperm count is a decrease in fertility. This is why men with a low sperm counts are often advised not to wear briefs and avoid excessive hot tub use.

How Heat Affects Sperm

Sperm production, also known as spermatogenesis, occurs within the testicles. The process is sensitive to temperature, with the ideal temperature for sperm production being slightly lower than core body temperature.

This is the reason the testicles are located outside the body, allowing for heat regulation. Prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures can hinder the process of spermatogenesis, leading to a decrease in sperm count and motility. This temperature sensitivity is the basis for the concern about hot tub use and sperm count.

Several studies and scholarly articles have looked at the impact of elevated temperatures on sperm production, and show that prolonged heat exposure to the testicles does impact sperm health.

One such study published in the official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology, found that men who frequently used hot tubs or saunas had a higher likelihood of experiencing reduced sperm count and motility. (1)

However, the researchers found that the negative effects on sperm parameters were reversible, with most men experiencing a return to normal sperm count and motility within 12-18 months after discontinuing hot tub use.

Another study published in the 2016 issue of Andrology showed similar results. The study analyzed the effects of exposure to wet heat (such as hot tubs, saunas, or steam rooms) on sperm production.

Researchers found that men who were exposed to wet heat for 30 minutes, either daily or every three days,  saw a significant reduction in sperm counts after a 10-day period. (2) Most of the men’s sperm counts returned to normal after about 3-4 months.

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Factors That Can Exacerbate the Impact of Heat

While it’s clear that prolonged exposure to heat can negatively affect sperm production, there are other factors that can exacerbate this impact. These factors include:

  • Duration of exposure: The longer the exposure to elevated temperatures, the more significant the effect on sperm production. It’s essential to limit the duration of hot tub sessions to minimize potential harm.
  • Frequency of exposure: Frequent hot tub use increases the risk of experiencing reduced sperm count and motility. Limiting the frequency of hot tub sessions can help minimize potential negative effects.
  • Lifestyle factors: Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle, can further reduce sperm count and quality. Making healthy lifestyle choices can help improve overall sperm health.
  • Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as varicoceles, can also contribute to a low sperm count. Treating underlying medical issues can help improve sperm production.

Do Hot Tubs Increase the Risk For Birth Defects?

The exposure to heat from hot tubs does appear to negatively impact sperm production and quality, and potentially decrease fertility. But does this mean that hot tub use can lead to an increased risk of birth defects?

The answer to this question is not as straightforward as one might think. While studies have shown that there is no direct link between hot tub use and birth defects, it should still be taken into consideration when trying to conceive.

For example, if a man frequently uses a hot tub with very high temperatures and for extended periods of time, it can lead to decreased sperm production and quality. Theoretically, this could potentially increase the risk for certain birth defects.

Therefore, it’s important to be aware of how frequent use of a hot tub can affect sperm production and quality before attempting conception.

Minimizing Your Risk

If you are concerned about the potential impact of hot tub use on your sperm count, there are several steps you can take to minimize the risk:

  • Limit exposure: Reduce the duration and frequency of hot tub sessions. Aim for sessions that last no longer than 15-20 minutes and limit your hot tub use to no more than once or twice a week.
  • Monitor temperature: Ensure that the hot tub temperature does not exceed 104°F (40°C). Prolonged exposure to temperatures above this threshold can be harmful to sperm production.
  • Cool down: Allow your body to cool down completely between hot tub sessions. This can help regulate testicular temperature and promote healthy sperm production.
  • Improve lifestyle habits: Engage in regular physical activity, maintain a healthy diet, and avoid excessive alcohol consumption and smoking. These healthy habits can help improve overall sperm health and counteract the potential negative effects of hot tub use.
  • Seek medical advice: If you are experiencing male fertility issues, consult with a healthcare professional who can provide guidance on your specific situation and help identify any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to a low sperm count.

Alternatives To Hot Tubs

For those looking for alternatives to hot tubs, there are a variety of ways to keep your sperm count healthy. Exercise can be a great way to boost sperm production and improve overall health. Regular physical activity also has the added benefit of reducing stress levels – which is important when trying to conceive.

Other activities such as biking, swimming, walking, and jogging can all help boost fertility.

Another option is eating a balanced, nutritious diet with plenty of protein-rich foods like eggs, nuts, fish, and legumes. Not only will this help increase sperm production but it can also enhance your overall well-being.

Additionally, taking certain vitamins and male fertility supplements can help promote sperm production as well as provide essential nutrients that may be lacking in the diet. For example, zinc has been found to have a positive effect on sperm count while vitamin C may help reduce oxidative stress and improve overall fertility.

Ultimately, finding an alternative to hot tubs that works for you is key for maintaining healthy sperm production levels. With regular exercise and a balanced diet full of essential vitamins and minerals you can ensure optimal fertility levels without having to worry about potential risks associated with hot tubs.

Doing so will give you peace of mind knowing that you’re doing everything possible to support your goal of fathering a child.


While the research suggests that prolonged and frequent use of hot tubs can lead to a temporary reduction in sperm count and sperm motility, it’s important to note that the effects are generally reversible. By taking steps to minimize exposure to elevated temperatures, improving lifestyle habits, and addressing any underlying medical issues, men can reduce the potential impact of hot tub use on their fertility.

Hot tubs do not inherently cause a low sperm count — however, they can contribute to a short-term decline in sperm count and motility if used excessively and in conjunction with other negative lifestyle factors.

By following the guidelines outlined above, men can continue to enjoy the relaxation and health benefits provided by hot tubs while minimizing any potential risks to their fertility.

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